Elevation Certificates |Affidavit of Merit | Land Title Surveys | ALTA/NSPS Land Title Surveys |Standard Land Surveys | Topographic Surveys

The Elevation Certificate is an important administrative tool of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). It is to be used to provide elevation information necessary to ensure compliance with community floodplain management ordinances, to determine the proper insurance premium rate, and to support a request for a Letter of Map Amendment (LOMA) or Letter of Map Revision based on fill (LOMR-F). The Elevation Certificate is required in order to properly rate post-FIRM buildings.  A new Elevation Certificate form was released 12/2012. It contains minor changes in the building diagrams and information presentation. Elevation Certificates after this date should use this new form.The Elevation Certificate is an important administrative tool of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). It is to be used to provide elevation information necessary to ensure compliance with community floodplain management ordinances, to determine the proper insurance premium rate, and to support a request for a Letter of Map Amendment (LOMA) or Letter of Map Revision based on fill (LOMR-F). The Elevation Certificate is required in order to properly rate post-FIRM buildings.  A new Elevation Certificate form was released 12/2012. It contains minor changes in the building diagrams and information presentation. Elevation Certificates after this date should use this new form.

B and B Surveying is happy to assist you with any surveying needs related to obtaining Elevation Certificate in the state of Texas. Click on the image to the right to view the Elevation Certificate form and instructions. 

An affidavit of merit is a requirement in some jurisdictions, primarily in medical malpractice claims, to have an expert file an affidavit stating the claim has merit. It is a measure enacted to deter frivolous lawsuits. When a plaintiff in a medical liability lawsuit does not file an affidavit of merit with the complaint, the case may be dismissed. Below is a detailed explanation of Affidavit of Merit for State of Texas

B AND B SURVEYING COMPANY provides Land Title Surveys under the Texas Society of Professional Surveyors manual of practice. This type of survey is typically required by most lenders and Title Insurance Firms in the State of Texas for a Land Title transaction. A copy of Schedule "A" and "B" of the Title Commitment are required to be forwarded to the Land Surveyor for this type of survey. Generally if you provide us with your Realtor's name and contact information we can obtain this information for you. See below for information regarding the rules and required content for this type of survey.


(Effective February 23, 2016)



1.             Purpose - Members of the American Land Title Association (ALTA) have specific needs, unique to title insurance matters, when asked to insure title to land without exception as to the many matters which might be discoverable from survey and inspection, and which are not evidenced by the public records. 


American Land Title Association Logo

For a survey of real property, and the plat, map or record of such survey, to be acceptable to a title insurance company for the purpose of insuring title to said real property free and clear of survey matters (except those matters disclosed by the survey and indicated on the plat or map), certain specific and pertinent information must be presented for the distinct and clear understanding between the insured, the client (if different from the insured), the title insurance company (insurer), the lender, and the surveyor professionally responsible for the survey.


In order to meet such needs, clients, insurers, insureds, and lenders are entitled to rely on surveyors to conduct surveys and prepare associated plats or maps that are of a professional quality and appropriately uniform, complete and accurate. To that end, and in the interests of the general public, the surveying profession, title insurers and abstracters, the ALTA and the National Society of Professional Surveyors, Inc. (NSPS) jointly promulgate the within details and criteria setting forth a minimum standard of performance for ALTA/NSPS Land Title Surveys.  A complete 2016 ALTA/NSPS Land Title Survey includes the on-site fieldwork required under Section 5 herein, the preparation of a plat or map showing the results of the fieldwork and its relationship to record documents as required under Section 6 herein, any information in Table A herein that may have been negotiated with the client, and the certification outlined in Section 7 herein.


2.         Request for Survey - The client shall request the survey or arrange for the survey to be requested, and shall provide a written authorization to proceed from the person or entity responsible for paying for the survey.  Unless specifically authorized in writing by the insurer, the insurer shall not be responsible for any costs associated with the preparation of the survey. The request shall specify that an "ALTA/NSPS LAND TITLE SURVEY" is required and which of the optional items listed in Table A herein, if any, are to be incorporated.  Certain properties, including, but not limited to, marinas, campgrounds, trailer parks and leased areas, may present issues outside those normally encountered on an ALTA/NSPS Land Title Survey. The scope of work related to such properties should be discussed with the client, lender and insurer, and agreed upon in writing prior to requesting the survey. The client may need to secure permission for the surveyor to enter upon the property to be surveyed, adjoining properties, or offsite easements.


3.     Surveying Standards and Standards of Care

A.    Effective Date - The 2016 Minimum Standard Detail Requirements for ALTA/NSPS Land Title Surveys are effective February 23, 2016.  As of that date, all previous versions of the Minimum Standard Detail Requirements for ALTA/NSPS Land Title Surveys are superseded by these standards.


B.    Other Requirements and Standards of Practice - Some Federal agencies, many states and some local jurisdictions have adopted statutes, administrative rules and/or ordinances that set out standards regulating the practice of surveying within their jurisdictions. In addition to the standards set forth herein, surveyors shall also conduct their surveys in accordance with all applicable jurisdictional requirements and standards of practice. Where conflicts between the standards set forth herein and any such jurisdictional requirements and standards of practice occur, the more stringent shall apply. 

C.    The Normal Standard of Care - Surveyors should recognize that there may be unwritten local, state, and/or regional standards of care defined by the practice of the ‘prudent surveyor’ in those locales.

D.    Boundary Resolution - The boundary lines and corners of any property being surveyed as part of an ALTA/NSPS Land Title Survey shall be established and/or retraced in accordance with appropriate boundary law principles governed by the set of facts and evidence found in the course of performing the research and survey.

E.    Measurement Standards - The following measurement standards address Relative Positional Precision for the monuments or witnesses marking the corners of the surveyed property.

i.      “Relative Positional Precision” means the length of the semi-major axis, expressed in feet or meters, of the error ellipse representing the uncertainty due to random errors in measurements in the location of the monument, or witness, marking any corner of the surveyed property relative to the monument, or witness, marking any other corner of the surveyed property at the 95 percent confidence level (two standard deviations).  Relative Positional Precision is estimated by the results of a correctly weighted least squares adjustment of the survey.

ii.    Any boundary lines and corners established or retraced may have uncertainties in location resulting from (1) the availability, condition, history and integrity of reference or controlling monuments, (2) ambiguities in the record descriptions or plats of the surveyed property or its adjoiners, (3) occupation or possession lines as they may differ from the written title lines, and (4) Relative Positional Precision. Of these four sources of uncertainty, only Relative Positional Precision is controllable, although due to the inherent errors in any measurement, it cannot be eliminated. The magnitude of the first three uncertainties can be projected based on evidence; Relative Positional Precision is estimated using statistical means (see Section 3.E.i. above and Section 3.E.v. below).

iii.   The first three of these sources of uncertainty must be weighed as part of the evidence in the determination of where, in the surveyor’s opinion, the boundary lines and corners of the surveyed property should be located (see Section 3.D. above).  Relative Positional Precision is a measure of how precisely the surveyor is able to monument and report those positions; it is not a substitute for the application of proper boundary law principles.  A boundary corner or line may have a small Relative Positional Precision because the survey measurements were precise, yet still be in the wrong position (i.e. inaccurate) if it was established or retraced using faulty or improper application of boundary law principles.

iv.   For any measurement technology or procedure used on an ALTA/NSPS Land Title Survey, the surveyor shall (1) use appropriately trained personnel, (2) compensate for systematic errors, including those associated with instrument calibration, and (3) use appropriate error propagation and measurement design theory (selecting the proper instruments, geometric layouts, and field and computational procedures) to control random errors such that the maximum allowable Relative Positional Precision outlined in Section 3.E.v. below is not exceeded.


v.     The maximum allowable Relative Positional Precision for an ALTA/NSPS Land Title Survey is 2 cm (0.07 feet) plus 50 parts per million (based on the direct distance between the two corners being tested).  It is recognized that in certain circumstances, the size or configuration of the surveyed property, or the relief, vegetation or improvements on the surveyed property will result in survey measurements for which the maximum allowable Relative Positional Precision may be exceeded.  If the maximum allowable Relative Positional Precision is exceeded, the surveyor shall note the reason as explained in Section 6.B.ix below.


4.         Records Research - It is recognized that for the performance of an ALTA/NSPS Land Title Survey, the surveyor will be provided with appropriate data which can be relied upon in the preparation of the survey. The request for an ALTA/NSPS Land Title Survey shall set forth the current record description of the property to be surveyed or, in the case of an original survey, the current record description of the parent parcel that contains the property to be surveyed.  Complete copies of the most recent title commitment, the current record description of the property to be surveyed (or, in the case of an original survey, the parent parcel), the current record descriptions of adjoiners, any record easements benefiting the property, the record easements or servitudes and covenants burdening the property (all hereinafter referred to collectively as "Record Documents"), documents of record referred to in the Record Documents, documents necessary to ascertain, if possible, the junior/senior relationship pursuant to Section 6.B.vii. below, and any other documents containing desired appropriate information affecting the property being surveyed, and to which the ALTA/NSPS Land Title Survey shall make reference, shall be provided to the surveyor for use in conducting the survey. Reference is made to Section 3.B. above.


5.         Field Work - The Survey shall be performed on the ground (except as otherwise negotiated pursuant to Table A, Item 15 below, if selected by the client), and the field work shall include the following:

A.    Monuments

i.      The location and description of any monuments or lines that control the boundaries of the surveyed property.

ii.    The location, size and type of any monuments found (or set, if Table A, Item 1 is requested by the client, or if otherwise required – see Section 3.B. above) on the boundary of the surveyed property.

B.    Rights of Way and Access

i.      The distance from the appropriate corner or corners of the surveyed property to the nearest right of way line, if the surveyed property does not abut a right of way.

ii.    The name of any street, highway or other public or private way abutting the surveyed property, and the width and location of the travelled way relative to the nearest boundary line of the surveyed property.

iii.   Visible evidence of physical access (such as, but not limited to, curb cuts and driveways) to any abutting streets, highways or other public ways.

iv.   The location and character of vehicular, pedestrian or other forms of access by other than the apparent occupants of the surveyed property to or across the surveyed property, including, but not limited to driveways, alleys, private roads, sidewalks and footpaths observed in the process of conducting the survey.

v.     Without expressing a legal opinion as to ownership or nature, the location and extent of any potentially encroaching driveways, alleys, and other ways of access from adjoining properties onto the surveyed property observed in the process of conducting the survey.

vi.   Where documentation of the width or location of any abutting street, road or highway right of way was not disclosed in Record Documents provided to the surveyor or was not otherwise available from the controlling jurisdiction (see Section 6.C.iv. below), the evidence and location of parcel corners recovered which might indicate the width or location of such right of way lines.

vii.  Evidence of access to and from waters adjoining the surveyed property, such as paths, boat slips, launches, piers and docks observed in the process of conducting the survey.

C.    Lines of Possession, and Improvements along the Boundaries

i.      The character and location of evidence of possession or occupation along the perimeter of the surveyed property, both by the occupants of the surveyed property and by adjoiners, observed in the process of conducting the survey.

ii.    The character and location of all walls, buildings, fences, and other improvements within five feet of each side of the boundary lines, observed in the process of conducting the survey.

iii.   Without expressing a legal opinion as to the ownership or nature of the potential encroachment, the evidence, location and extent of potentially encroaching structural appurtenances and projections observed in the process of conducting the survey, such as fire escapes, bay windows, windows and doors that open out, flue pipes, stoops, eaves, cornices, areaways, steps, trim, etc., by or onto adjoining property, or onto rights of way, easements or setback lines disclosed in Record Documents provided to the surveyor.

D.    Buildings

Based on the normal standard of care, the location of all buildings on the surveyed property shown perpendicular to the nearest perimeter boundary line(s) and expressed to the appropriate degree of precision.

E.    Easements and Servitudes

i.      Evidence of any easements or servitudes burdening the surveyed property, disclosed in the Record Documents provided to the surveyor and observed in the process of conducting the survey.

ii.    Evidence of easements or servitudes not disclosed in the Record Documents provided to the surveyor, but observed in the process of conducting the survey, such as those created by roads; rights of way; water courses; ditches; drains; telephone, fiber optic lines, or electric lines; water, sewer, oil or gas pipelines on or across the surveyed property and on adjoining properties if they appear to affect the surveyed property.

iii.   Surface indications of underground easements or servitudes on or across the surveyed property observed in the process of conducting the survey.

iv.   Evidence of use of the surveyed property by other than the apparent occupants observed in the process of conducting the survey.

Alta Survey

F.    Cemeteries

As accurately as the evidence permits, the location of cemeteries, gravesites, and burial grounds (i) disclosed in the Record Documents provided to the surveyor, or (ii) observed in the process of conducting the survey.

G.    Water Features

i.      The location of springs, together with the location of ponds, lakes, streams, and rivers bordering on or running through the surveyed property, observed during the process of conducting the survey. See Table A, Item 19 for wetlands locations.


ii.    The location of any water boundary on the surveyed property. The attribute(s) of the water feature located (e.g. top of bank, edge of water, high water mark, etc.) should be congruent with the boundary as described in the record description or, in the case of an original survey, in the new description. (See Section 6.B.vi. below).


6.         Plat or Map - A plat or map of an ALTA/NSPS Land Title Survey shall show the following information. Where dimensioning is appropriate, dimensions shall be in accordance with the appropriate standard of care.


A.    The evidence and locations gathered during the field work as outlined in Section 5 above.

B.    Boundary, Descriptions, Dimensions and Closures

i.      The current record description of the surveyed property, and any new description of the surveyed property that was prepared in conjunction with the survey, including a statement explaining why the new description was prepared. Preparation of a new description should be avoided unless deemed necessary or appropriate by the surveyor and insurer. Preparation of a new description should also generally be avoided when the record description is a lot or block in a platted, recorded subdivision.

ii.    The location and description of any monuments, lines or other evidence that control the boundaries of the surveyed property or that were otherwise relied upon in establishing or retracing the boundaries of the surveyed property, and the relationship of that evidence to the surveyed boundary. In some cases, this will require notes on the plat or map.

iii.   All distances and directions identified in the record description of the surveyed property (and in the new description, if one was prepared). Where a measured or calculated dimension differs from the record by an amount deemed significant by the surveyor, such dimension shall be shown in addition to, and differentiated from, the corresponding record dimension.

iv.   The directional, distance and curve data necessary to compute a mathematical closure of the surveyed boundary. A note if the record description does not mathematically close. The basis of bearings and, when it differs from the record basis, the difference.

v.     The remainder of any recorded lot or existing parcel, when the surveyed property is composed of only a portion of such lot or parcel, shall be graphically depicted.  Such remainder does not need to be included as part of the actual survey, except to the extent necessary to locate the lines and corners of the surveyed property, and it need not be fully dimensioned or drawn at the same scale as the surveyed property.

vi.   When the surveyed property includes a water boundary, a note on the face of the plat or map noting the date the boundary was measured, which attribute(s) of the water feature was/were located, and the caveat that the boundary is subject to change due to natural causes and that it may or may not represent the actual location of the limit of title.  When the surveyor is aware of natural or artificial realignments or changes in such boundaries, the extent of those changes and facts shall be shown or explained.

vii.  The relationship of the boundaries of the surveyed property (i.e. contiguity, gaps, or overlaps) with its adjoiners, where ascertainable from Record Documents and/or from field evidence gathered during the process of conducting the survey of the property being surveyed. If the surveyed property is composed of multiple parcels, the extent of any gaps or overlaps between those parcels shall be identified.  Where gaps or overlaps are identified, the surveyor shall, prior to preparation of the final plat or map, disclose this to the insurer and client for determination of a course of action concerning junior/senior rights.


viii. When, in the opinion of the surveyor, the results of the survey differ significantly from the record, or if a fundamental decision related to the boundary resolution is not clearly reflected on the plat or map, the surveyor shall explain this information with notes on the face of the plat or map.

ix.   A note on the face of the plat or map explaining the site conditions that resulted in a Relative Positional Precision that exceeds the maximum allowed under Section 3.E.v. of these standards.

x.     A note on the face of the plat or map identifying the title commitment/policy number, effective date and name of the insurer for any title work provided to the surveyor.

C.    Easements, Servitudes, Rights of Way, Access and Record Documents

i.      The width and recording information of all plottable rights of way, easements and servitudes burdening and benefitting the property surveyed, as evidenced by Record Documents which have been provided to the surveyor.

ii.    A note regarding any right of way, easement or servitude evidenced by a Record Document which has been provided to the surveyor (a) the location of which cannot be determined from the record document, or (b) of which there was no observed evidence at the time of the survey, or (c) that is a blanket easement, or (d) that is not on, or does not touch, the surveyed property, or (e) that limits access to an otherwise abutting right of way, or (f) in cases where the surveyed property is composed of multiple parcels, which of such parcels the various rights of way, easements, and servitudes cross.

iii.   A note if no physical access to a public way was observed in the process of conducting the survey.

iv.   The width of abutting rights of way and the source of such information (a) where available from the controlling jurisdiction or (b) where disclosed in Record Documents provided to the surveyor.

v.     The identifying titles of all recorded plats, filed maps, right of way maps, or similar documents which the survey represents, wholly or in part, with their recording or filing data.

vi.   For non-platted adjoining land, names and recording data identifying adjoining owners according to current public records.  For platted adjoining land, the recording data of the subdivision plat.

vii.  Platted setback or building restriction lines which appear on recorded subdivision plats or which were disclosed in Record Documents provided to the surveyor.

D.    Presentation

i.      The plat or map shall be drawn on a sheet of not less than 8 ½ by 11 inches in size at a legible, standard engineering scale, with that scale clearly indicated in words or numbers and with a graphic scale. When recordation or filing of a plat or map is required by law, such plat or map shall be produced in recordable form. The boundary of the surveyed property drawn in a manner that distinguishes it from other lines on the plat or map.  A north arrow (with north to the top of the drawing when practicable), a legend of symbols and abbreviations, and a vicinity map showing the property in reference to nearby highway(s) or major street intersection(s).

ii.    Supplementary or detail diagrams when necessary.

iii.   If there are no visible buildings on the surveyed property, a note stating “No buildings existing on the surveyed property” shall appear on the face on the survey.


iv.   The surveyor’s project number (if any), and the name, registration or license number, signature, seal, street address, telephone number, and email address of the surveyor who performed the survey. The date(s) of any revisions made by said surveyor.

v.     Sheet numbers where the plat or map is composed of more than one sheet.

vi.   The caption “ALTA/NSPS Land Title Survey.”


7.              Certification - The plat or map of an ALTA/NSPS Land Title Survey shall bear only the following certification, unaltered, except as may be required pursuant to Section 3.B. above:     


To (name of insured, if known), (name of lender, if known), (name of insurer, if known), (names of others as negotiated with the client):


This is to certify that this map or plat and the survey on which it is based were made in accordance with the 2016 Minimum Standard Detail Requirements for ALTA/NSPS Land Title Surveys, jointly established and adopted by ALTA and NSPS, and includes Items            of Table A thereof. The field work was completed on ___________.


            Date of Plat or Map:_____  (Surveyor’s signature, printed name and seal with Registration/License Number)


8.             Deliverables - The surveyor shall furnish copies of the plat or map of survey to the insurer and client, and as otherwise negotiated with the client. Hard copies shall be on durable and dimensionally stable material of a quality standard acceptable to the insurer. Digital copies of the plat or map may be provided in addition to, or in lieu of, hard copies in accordance with the terms of the contract. When required by law or requested by the client, the plat or map shall be produced in recordable form and recorded or filed in the appropriate office or with the appropriate agency.






NOTE:  The items of Table A must be negotiated between the surveyor and client.  It may be necessary for the surveyor to qualify or expand upon the description of these items (e.g., in reference to Item 6(b), there may be a need for an interpretation of a restriction). The surveyor cannot make a certification on the basis of an interpretation or opinion of another party. Notwithstanding Table A Items 5 and 11(b), if an engineering design survey is desired as part of an ALTA/NSPS Land Title Survey, such services should be negotiated under Table A, item 22.


If checked, the following optional items are to be included in the ALTA/NSPS LAND TITLE SURVEY, except as otherwise qualified (see note above):


1.         _____   Monuments placed (or a reference monument or witness to the corner) at all major corners of the boundary of the property, unless already marked or referenced by existing monuments or witnesses.


2.         _____   Address(es) if disclosed in Record Documents, or observed while conducting the survey.


3.                     _____   Flood zone classification (with proper annotation based on federal Flood Insurance Rate Maps or the state or local equivalent) depicted by scaled map location and graphic plotting only.


4.                     _____   Gross land area (and other areas if specified by the client).


5.                     _____   Vertical relief with the source of information (e.g. ground survey or aerial map), contour interval, datum, and originating benchmark identified.


6.                     _____   (a) Current zoning classification, as provided by the insurer.


_____   (b) Current zoning classification and building setback requirements, height and floor space area restrictions as set forth in that classification, as provided by the insurer. If none, so state.


7.         _____   (a) Exterior dimensions of all buildings at ground level.


                        (b) Square footage of:


                        _____   (1) exterior footprint of all buildings at ground level.


                        _____   (2) other areas as specified by the client.


            _____   (c) Measured height of all buildings above grade at a location specified by the client. If no location is specified, the point of measurement shall be identified.


8.         _____   Substantial features observed in the process of conducting the survey (in addition to the improvements and features required under Section 5 above) such as parking lots, billboards, signs, swimming pools, landscaped areas, etc.


9.         _____   Striping, number and type (e.g. handicapped, motorcycle, regular, etc.) of parking spaces in parking areas, lots and structures.


10.        _____   (a) Determination of the relationship and location of certain division or party walls designated by the client with respect to adjoining properties (client to obtain necessary permissions).


            _____   (b) Determination of whether certain walls designated by the client are plumb (client to obtain necessary permissions).


11.                    Location of utilities (representative examples of which are listed below) existing on or serving the surveyed property as determined by:


            _____   (a) Observed evidence.


                        _____   (b) Observed evidence together with evidence from plans obtained from utility companies or provided by client, and markings by utility companies and other appropriate sources (with reference as to the source of information).

                        ·           Railroad tracks, spurs and sidings;

                        ·           Manholes, catch basins, valve vaults and other surface indications of subterranean uses;

                        ·           Wires and cables (including their function, if readily identifiable) crossing the surveyed property, and all poles on or within ten feet of the surveyed property. Without expressing a legal opinion as to the ownership or nature of the potential encroachment, the dimensions of all encroaching utility pole crossmembers or overhangs; and

                        ·           utility company installations on the surveyed property.


                        Note - With regard to Table A, item 11(b), source information from plans and markings will be combined with observed evidence of utilities to develop a view of those underground utilities.  However, lacking excavation, the exact location of underground features cannot be accurately, completely and reliably depicted.  Where additional or more detailed information is required, the client is advised that excavation may be necessary.

12.        _____   Governmental Agency survey-related requirements as specified by the client, such as for HUD surveys, and surveys for leases on Bureau of Land Management managed lands.


13.        _____   Names of adjoining owners of platted lands according to current public records.


14.        _____   Distance to the nearest intersecting street as specified by the client.


15.        _____   Rectified orthophotography, photogrammetric mapping, airborne/mobile laser scanning and other similar products, tools or technologies as the basis for the showing the location of certain features (excluding boundaries) where ground measurements are not otherwise necessary to locate those features to an appropriate and acceptable accuracy relative to a nearby boundary.  The surveyor shall (a) discuss the ramifications of such methodologies (e.g. the potential precision and completeness of the data gathered thereby) with the insurer, lender and client prior to the performance of the survey and, (b) place a note on the face of the survey explaining the source, date, precision and other relevant qualifications of any such data.


16.        _____   Observed evidence of current earth moving work, building construction or building additions.


17.        _____   Proposed changes in street right of way lines, if information is available from the controlling jurisdiction. Observed evidence of recent street or sidewalk construction or repairs.


18.        _____   Observed evidence of site use as a solid waste dump, sump or sanitary landfill.


19.        _____   Location of wetland areas as delineated by appropriate authorities.


20.        _____   (a) Locate improvements within any offsite easements or servitudes benefitting the surveyed property that are disclosed in the Record Documents provided to the surveyor and that are observed in the process of conducting the survey (client to obtain necessary permissions).


            _____   (b) Monuments placed (or a reference monument or witness to the corner) at all major corners of any offsite easements or servitudes benefitting the surveyed property and disclosed in Record Documents provided to the surveyor (client to obtain necessary permissions).


21.        _____   Professional Liability Insurance policy obtained by the surveyor in the minimum amount of $____________ to be in effect throughout the contract term. Certificate of Insurance to be furnished upon request.


22.        _____   ___________________________________________________________________







Adopted by the Board of Governors, American Land Title Association, on October 13, 2010.

American Land Title Association, 1828 L St., N.W., Suite 705, Washington, D.C. 20036.


Adopted by the Board of Directors, National Society of Professional Surveyors, on November 15, 2010.

National Society of Professional Surveyors, Inc., a member organization of the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, 6 Montgomery Village Avenue, Suite 403, Gaithersburg, MD 20879

Below are specifications for a Standard Land Survey by the Texas Society of Professional Surveyors. This type of survey is typically needed for purposes other than a Land Title transaction. This type of survey would be performed for the purpose of building a fence, locating protrusions or intrusions of the subject tract and adjoining tracts of land, locating improvements on the subject tract relative to the boundary or simply locating the subject tract on the ground. This type of survey is performed without the benefit of a Title Insurance policy or commitment. Easements, setback lines and other matters concerning the subject tract may or may not appear on the survey.


SEC. 1

TYPE: Standard Land Survey

DEFINITION: A Standard Land Survey is defined as a study,investigation and evaluation of major factors affecting and influencing the location of the boundaries, ownership lines, and may include rights of way and easements within or surrounding a certain lot, parcel or quantity of real estate. Such study and evaluation will culminate in the deliberate location or relocation on the ground of the perimeters,division lines or boundaries and the determination of area on the certain lot, parcel or quantity or real estate. A Standard Land Survey is not for title insuring purposes, but is suitable for most any other purpose. This survey will not normally locate improvements, rights of way or easements within the surveyed site unless requested by the client or where such items appear to the surveyor in his professional judgement to indicate an encumbrance on the real estate. The practice of locating land boundaries requires the expert skill of a Registered Professional Land Surveyor well-versed in the science and art of boundary law and long-practiced in the mechanics of measuring and computing values pertaining to such surveys.

SEC. 3

PURPOSES: The purpose of a Standard Land Survey is to establish or reestablish on the ground the physical or theoretical location and extent of real property lines, political boundaries or lines defining the perimeters of public or private ownership

of exteriors or centerlines of record easements and the evidence indicating 
This includes the possibility of prescriptive or limitation rights. A Standard Land Survey is a means of marking such lines or boundaries for definition and identification
 Thereby it uniquely locates each plot, parcel, lot, or other specific land area in relation to well recognized and established points of reference, adjoining properties and rights of way.

3.1 Purposes of this Specification: This specification shall be

used for the location of real property, for determining boundaries,

quantity or area, for preparing a written description or for

platting or mapping real estate as a professional service for the


public where title insurance is not the purpose of the survey.

3.2 Standard Land Surveys may include, but are not limited to the

proper location, monumentation, description or platting of the

following real estate:

3.2.1 Residential, commercial and industrial lots, tracts,

plots, blocks, sites or subdivisions.

3.2.2 Acreage tracts for homesites, farms and ranches.

3.2.3 Investment or commercial lands for production of

timber, crops, livestock, oil, gas, coal, or quarries, mines

or other excavations.

3.2.4 Public properties such as parks, beaches, lakes,

roads, streets, waterways, highways, and building sites.

3.2.5 Leases for commercial

, agricultural, or industrial


3.2.6 Improved properties for the purpose of locating

buildings, utilities or other facilities in relation to the

property lines.

SEC. 4

PRODUCT: A Standard Land Survey will produce but will not be

limited to:

4.1 Monuments set for all corners, points of curves or references

to property lines of the involved land (see Section 6 herein).

4.2 A signed, sealed and dated written description depicting the

new survey, as required (see Section l2 herein).

4.3 A signed, sealed, dated and certified map or plat depicting

the survey as made on the ground (see Section 10 herein).


4.4 As required, a written report of the surveyor's findings and


SEC. 5

INFORMATION REQUIRED: Sufficient information to perform the

survey should be furnished by the client, his agent or acquired for the

client by the surveyor at an agreeable fee. Necessity of the following

data must be considered and evaluated by the surveyor: Copies of

documents relied upon should be maintained in the surveyors records.

Also see applicable TBPLS rules for this subject.

5.1 The most recent record instruments which define the location

of the subject, real property (including owners name or names and

recording references).

5.2 The most recent recorded instruments which define the

location of the surrounding, or adjoining, real property

(including owner’s name and recording references).

5.3 The recorded easement or instrument (or unrecorded documents

of which the surveyor has knowledge) which define the location of

adjoining severing rights of way, particularly highways, roadways,

pipelines, or utility corridors and drainage or flood control

waterways (including grantees' names and recording references).

5.4 Surface leases. (Mineral leases when appropriate).

5.5 Permission to enter and survey on the land, preferably


5.6 Relevant data regarding special circumstances, such as

unrecorded easements, affidavits to ownership, judgments or court

decrees that may influence the property or ownership lines.

5.7 Claims against the property that may influence the location

of property or ownership lines such as possible limitation,

prescriptive rights, apparent intrusions or protrusions of

improvements or other parties in possession.


5.8 Names of tenants or parties in charge of the site.

5.9 Any grant, patent, subdivision plat, historical data,

covenants or other recorded data that will reference or influence

the position of the property lines.

5.10 In areas prone to flood, areas in flood plains or floodways

certain additional information may be required. (Note however,

inherent inaccuracies of FEMA or Flood Insurance Rate Maps prelude

a surveyor from certifying to the accuracies of locations based on

such maps. Certification to elevations derived from appropriate

benchmarks is not prohibited.)

SEC. 6

MONUMENTS: Monuments set or called for, whether artificial or

natural, references or witnesses, shall represent the footsteps of the

surveyor and his professional opinion as to the proper location of the

point or corner. Also see applicable TBPLS rules for this subject.

6.1 Artificial monuments: An artificial monument considered

permanent shall be construed as any mark or marker of relative

permanence that if left undisturbed will remain in place for a

period of at least 25 years. Monuments must be set at sufficient

depth to retain a stable and distinctive location and be of

sufficient size to withstand the deteriorating forces of nature.

Monuments shall be set in such fashion as to remain stable.

6.1.1 Monument material: Material for monuments shall be

chosen in regard to the terrain and situation that exists at

the site of the survey. Consideration should be given to the

following guidelines and the natural erosive forces that will

work against the monument for decades to come. Wooden stakes should only be used with

discretion. Iron or steel bars or rods for monuments shall

be a minimum size of 1/2" in diameter by 24" long.

Longer bars or rods should be used in soft soil to


insure stability of the monument. Where rocky or caliche

soils prevent specified lengths, the rod should be driven

to refusal at such depths where it will remain stable. Iron pipes for monuments should be a minimum of

1/2" inside diameter and 24" long. Longer pipes shall be

used in soft soil to insure stability of the monument.

All iron pipes should be sized by the inside diameter.

Where rocky or caliche soils prevent the use of the

specified lengths, the shorter pipe should be driven to

refusal at such depths where it will remain stable. Non-ferrous metal monuments shall be equal to

requirements for iron rods or iron pipes. Precast reinforced concrete monuments shall have

a precise station mark such as a center punch or cross

embedded in the cap. Poured in place concrete monuments shall contain

a precise station mark (as in and be reinforced

with at least 1/4" or larger iron rods or pipe. Other monumentation such as drill holes,

chiselled marks in stone, concrete or steel, punch marks,

precast bronze discs, etc., shall be of sufficient size,

diameter or depth to be definitive, stable, and readily

identified as a survey marker. Objects upon which such

marks or makers are placed shall be of a stable and

permanent nature greater than equal those of iron pipes

or iron rods.

6.1.2 Monument placement: All monuments for corners, for

witness points, points of curve, etc., shall be set vertically

whenever possible and shall be reasonably flush with the earth

or ground surface. Monuments subject to construction damage


or total destruction shall be referenced to objects that will

survive or buried deep enough to offer protection from earth

grading or destructive machinery.

6.1.3 Monument identification: Consideration should be given

to the following guidelines: Monuments may be identified by code numbers or

letters for brevity and easy recognition. Monuments may

be identified by names of specific corners. Monuments shall be identified by appropriate

caps, imprinted with surveyor's registration number or

company/firm name. The size, shape and substance or construction

material of each monument shall be duly recorded in the

field notes and recited in the survey description and

noted on the map, plat, or drawing. When possible, monuments shall be referenced

to prominent nearby objects and the information recorded

in the description of the survey. Where permissible and

feasible, witness trees should be marked facing the

corner. Before marking any tree, the surveyor must

consider the probability of his liability for defacing

valuable private property

. Only healthy witness trees,

a minimum of 6" diameter, breast high (D.B.H.)should be

used. Each witness tree shall be described by species,

diameter, and type of markings.

6.2 Natural or physical monuments: Natural monuments are the

permanent objects which are the works of nature, such as streams,

rivers, ponds, lakes, bays, trees, ledges, rock outcrops and other

definitive terrestrial features.

6.2.1 Tree for corner: A tree standing at a corner may be

marked only when permissible and then shall be marked with


care to be reasonably certain of creating only superficial

damage to the tree. Such blazing shall penetrate the bark and

leave an open vertical cut no wider than three inches and no

longer than ten inches. Tree for corner will be marked with

4-way blazes (Blazed on all 4 sides).

6.2.2 Mark boundary line trees only when permission is

received from appropriate authority. Trees on boundary line (line trees) will be

face-blazed with one hack above and one hack below, on

opposite sides of the tree. Trees on each side of the boundary line (within

about three feet)will be hacked with three hacks facing

the line and face-blazed on opposite sides of the tree.

SEC. 7

CONDITIONS: Surveys under this Category shall be termed a

Standard Land Survey; see Section III E of Standards for appropriate


SEC. 8

TOLERANCES FOR CONDITIONS: See Section III O of the Standards

and in addition refer to the tolerance chart for this Category.

SEC. 9

FIELD PROCEDURES: Field work shall be performed in accordance

with accepted technical methods as expressed in standard textbooks on

surveying theory, practice and procedures. Any textbook used for the

purpose of surveying instruction by an accredited university, college,

or junior college in the state of Texas will be considered a satisfactory

text for this purpose. Any person in charge of a survey field party

shall be well-trained in these technical aspects of surveying. The

Registered Professional Land Surveyor is additionally charged with the

responsibility of adhering to the following requirements: Also see

applicable TBPLS rules for this subject.

9.1 Surveying instruments shall be kept in close adjustment

according to manufacturers

 specifications or in compliance to

textbook standards.


9.2 Steel tapes (chains) used for boundary measurements shall be

calibrated at intervals sufficient to obtain the tolerance

required. Such calibration shall be traceable to the U.S. Bureau

of Standards National Institute for Standards and Technology

through appropriate certificates or documentation.

9.3 Electronic distance measuring devices shall be calibrated at

intervals sufficient to obtain the tolerances required. Such

calibration shall be traceable to the U.S. Bureau of Standards

National Institute for Standards and Technology through appropriate

prisms, and accessories be maintained as a matched set.

9.4 Field measurements of angles and distances shall be done in

such fashion as to satisfy the closures and tolerances expressed

in Section 8, herein.

9.5 Where special surveys for vertical or horizontal control are

required as a base for a land boundary survey, refer to Categories

7 and 8 of these specifications or to relevant, special

publications from the U.S. Department of Commerce, the Department

of Interior or the Department of the Army on the special subject

matter. These are considered as satisfactory texts to define

acceptable field methods. Control by remote sensing or other

indirect methods may be employed, provided:

9.5.1 Aerial Photogrammetry shall be field checked to

sufficiently verify values for any incorporated data;

9.5.2 Satellite reliant or global positioning system (GPS)

control should be performed in accordance with special

publications on the subject and appropriate rules of boundary


9.6 Special consideration shall be afforded the rules of evidence


footsteps of the original surveyor

, and "dignity of calls" before

a decision is made as to locating on the ground any property,

tract, survey, or grant line. The best evidence and intentions of


the parties shall be sought out according to accepted surveying

procedures and as documented in standard textbooks on the legal

aspects of surveying. Also see applicable TBPLS rules for this


9.7 Corners or monuments called for in the relevant deeds to the

land to be surveyed, including those of adjoining property

affecting the location of the boundaries of the land to be surveyed

shall, be physically searched for in a methodical and meticulous

fashion. The use of magnetic or electronic locators is encouraged

and strongly recommended. Each corner or monument recovered shall

be evaluated as to its agreement by description and location with

the calls in the relevant deeds.

9.8 Easements of record or indications of possible easements that

are visible without meticulous searching shall be physically

located during the survey. Such items may include, not limited to,

overhead power, telephone or signal lines, roadbeds, car trails,

or pipe line routes through timber or pipeline markers, buried

cable markers or signs, new excavations. Any additional searching

for non-visible easements such as pipelines in open fields should

be negotiated with the client for the additional work and use of

special equipment.

9.9 Apparent conflicts, protrusions and evidence of prescriptive

or limitation rights along the perimeter boundaries of the tract

shall be physically located.

9.10 Field data shall be gathered to satisfy or exceed the

requirements for Section 8, and Section 10, herein.

SEC. 10

PLATS, MAPS, AND DRAWINGS: Land Title Surveys shall be

represented by a reproducible plat, map or drawing at a suitable scale

to depict the results and details of the field work, computation,

research, and record information, as compiled and checked. Also see

applicable TBPLS rules for this subject.


10.1 Any reasonably stable-base

, standard drawing paper, linen or

film of reproducible quality is considered as suitable material for

Standard Land Survey plats, maps or drawings.

10.2 No plat, map or drawing shall be made on a sheet size smaller

than 8 1/2" x 11".

10.3 Dimensions, bearings or angles, including curve lengths, (see

Section 12.8) radii and delta angles shall be neatly and legibly

shown in respect to each property or boundary line.

10.4 Monuments found shall be labeled as "found", with a brief

definitive description of the monument as to size, type of

material, condition and what it represents.

10.5 Monuments set shall be so labeled as "set" with a brief

definitive description of the monument as to size and type of

material and what it represents.

10.6 Relevant terrain features, streets, confined watercourses,

utilities, and other similar data shall be labeled and dimensioned

as to size, height or width and referenced to the nearest property

line or represented by symbol on the map in its proper, dimensioned

location. Symbols should be clear as to what is represented or

should be labeled for identification, individually or in a separate

key to symbols.

10.7 Maps, plats or drawings shall show a north arrow

. Drawing

shall be oriented as nearly as possible so that north is toward the

top of the sheet unless otherwise directed by the client or the

client’s representative.

10.8 A statement as to the origin of the bearings or angles shall

be made on each plat, map or drawing. All bearings or angles shall

refer to a line monumented on the ground and one of the following:

10.8.1 The Geodetic meridian as observed within one mile of

the surveyed site.


10.8.2 The Texas Coordinate System of 1983 (or 1927), with

proper zone, theta angle and traverse or triangulation station


10.8.3 A record bearing, or relation thereto, as called for

in said record. Also see applicable TBPLS rules for this


10.9 Where the new survey differs materially from prior deed

information in regard to course, distance or quantity, the client

or employer should be advised of such. The existing deed-call

bearings and dimensions should be shown in parenthesis beside or

on the opposite side of the boundary or property line and

designated as "call". The deed acreage or quantity should be

designated “call” and shown in parenthesis beneath the surveyed

acreage or square footage. In this case the deed calls should be

plainly referenced by a prominent note as to volume and page or

file where the deed is recorded. Unrecorded deeds should be

identified by the grantor, grantee and date of execution or

delivery. As an alternate to this procedure, or where complications

occur, the discrepancies, problems, conflicts or difference in call

distances and bearings should be explained in a written surveyor's

report issued to the client along with the plat or drawing. Also

see applicable TBPLS rules for this subject.

10.10 Where separate intricate details, blowups or inserts are

required for clarity, they shall be properly referenced to the

portion of the map where they apply. This applies particularly to

overlaps, gores, hiatuses or nonconformity of boundary or property


10.11 Perimeter limits of cemeteries and burial grounds known or

found within the premises being surveyed shall be shown by actual


10.12 Properties, confined watercourses, and rights-of-way

surrounding, adjoining, penetrating or severing the surveyed site


shall be identified and labeled with the recording references.

Such reference shall be one which describes and defines the

adjoining lines.

10.13 Original subdivision, survey, league, or land grant lines

shall be shown in proper location with pertinent labeling.

Sufficient measurement by course and distance must be shown to the

nearest parent tract corner, block corner, subdivision, survey,

league or land grant corner. Approximate distance to nearest street

or road intersection shall be shown.

10.14 If a coordinate system is used on the map, it shall be

identified as to the origin such as:

10.14.1 All coordinates refer to site datum.

10.14.2 All coordinates refer to the Texas Coordinate System

of 1983 (or 1927), (specifying the proper zone, the

reference traverse or triangulation station(s) and the

published coordinates of the station(s)).

10.15 Where the Texas Coordinate System is used for both bearings

and coordinates, a statement similar to item 10.14.2 (herein) shall

be shown on the map, but should begin, "All bearings and

coordinates refer---".

l0.15.1 The appropriate scale or grid factor(s) for the site

should be shown on the map.

10.16 Line weights, or width of drawn lines, should be chosen to

distinguish the surveyed site from other surrounding real estate,

county, original grant or survey lines.

10.17 Any elevations shown on the map in the form of spot

elevations or contours must be in reference to some datum or

specific benchmarks even though the elevation was assumed. A

statement as to basis of elevations shall be made on the map

similar to one of the following examples:


Example #1.

Elevations refer to a BM (LOCATION)- set near the N.E. corner of

the intersection of First St. and Ave. B, (DESCRIPTION)- on the

north rim of the manhole. Elevation is assumed as 200.00 feet.

Example #2.

Elevations and contours are based upon N.G.S. bench mark A142, mean

sea level (NAVD 88). Published elevation = 326.042 feet.

10.18 Each plat, map or drawing shall show the name

, firm name and

address of the Registered Professional Land Surveyor responsible

for the survey, separate or as a part of the title block. The title

block shall show:

10.18.1 Standard Land Survey (Caption).

10.18.2 General description of the property.

10.18.3 The date of the survey.

The date on the survey should be the date field work is

complete, the date research is complete, the date of the

surveyor’s signature, (any or all dates) shall be used.

10.18.4 The stated scale of the drawing with a graphic scale

displayed whenever feasible.

10.18.5 The street address of the site if known.

10.19 The original or reproducible copy of the survey map, plat

or drawing shall be retained by the surveyor in his files. The

client shall be furnished an agreed number of copies of the survey

map, plat or drawing.

10.20 A reproducible copy of the original may be furnished at the

Surveyor’s discretion for an addition fee.


SEC. 11

CERTIFICATION: See applicable TBPLS rules for this subject.

The certification for each map, plat or drawing must be signed and

sealed by the Registered Professional Land Surveyor responsible for the

Land Title Survey. Rubber stamps of signatures are not to be used.

Rubber stamps of seals are acceptable. The certification may be in any

form desired but shall contain the following sentence and minimum


This survey substantially complies with the current Texas Society of

Professional Surveyors Standards and Specifications for a Category 1B,

Condition _______ Survey.

(Surveyor's Seal)

______________________________ (Surveyor's signature)

______________________________ (Registration Number)

Date: _____________________

SEC. 12

DESCRIPTIONS: A description written to describe a surveyed

lot, parcel or quantity of land must provide the information to properly

locate the land on the ground and distinctly set it aside from all other

lands: Also see applicable TBPLS rules for this subject.

12.1 When the surveyed property's dimensions, boundaries and area

are in close agreement with the existing recorded deed or platted

calls, the aliquot method regarding subdivisions of rectangular

surveys or the plat method, involving lot, block and subdivision

may be used to describe the property.

12.2 Where any significant difference appears between the recorded

description and the new survey, a metes and bounds description

shall be made.

12.3 Basic information to be conveyed in any description will

consist of the general location of the property in relation to the

parent tract, established and recorded subdivisions, surveys,

leagues or other original land divisions, the abstract number or

numbers of such original land divisions, and the name of the county


in which the surveyed land is situated. Street addresses for small

tracts or lots shall be used when reasonably available.

12.4 A metes and bounds description is to be written in two parts.

The first part, called the general description, will logically

compile all the requirements of item 12.3

, above. The second part,

called the particular description, shall logically compile and

incorporate calls for the following:

12.4.1 Monuments, including descriptions as to the type,

nature, size, substance or construction material, and as to

whether set or found.

12.4.2 Adjoining property or rights-of-way.

12.4.3 Courses and distances of the new survey.

12.4.4 Appropriate passing calls.

12.4.5 Parenthetical deed calls where the deed calls

significantly differ from the new survey may be used. (Or

explain differences in a written report).

12.4.6 The area stated in acres, square feet or metric units

within the specified tolerances in Section 8, herein.

12.4.7 The source of bearings.

12.5 The point of beginning of any description shall be carefully

chosen and described so as to distinguish the point from any other

point. Any other point used to locate the point of beginning shall

be known as a "commencing" point.

12.5.1 The point of beginning should be the property corner

that is most easily recognized or found by any interested



12.5.2 When the new point of beginning is not the same as the

old point of beginning called for in the current and valid

deed, the old point of beginning should be identified or

acknowledged by suitable language when passed or located.

12.5.3 The point of beginning must be located by course and

distance or other locatable methods in relation to established

and recognized record monuments.

12.6 It is recommended, for uniformity, that any metes and bounds

description be written so that the progression of courses is in a

clockwise direction.

12.7 The subsequent written courses in the description shall be

as brief and yet as explanatory as the author can construct.

Brevity shall not cause important locative information to be

omitted and explanatory phrases shall not enlarge the description

to the extent of confusion.

12.8 Curved boundaries shall be identified as tangent or nontangent

curves and sufficient data to locate the curve shall be

recited. In all cases the radius and length of the curve must be

given as well as the general direction the curve takes. Additional

data to assist in locating the curve is desirable, such as bearing

and length of the long chord, central angle, degree of curve by arc

or chord definition, tangent lengths, etc.

12.9 Each metes and bounds description must close and return to

the point of beginning and recite the area enclosed within the

specified tolerances stated in Section 8, herein.

12.10 A statement at the end of the description shall connect

the description to the date of the Standard Land Survey, and the

map or plat representing that survey. Such statement may be

phrased, "This description is based on the Standard Land Survey

and plat made by ___________(Name) #____________ Registered

Professional Surveyor on _______.(Date)"

Also see Applicable TBPLS rules for this subject.

Topographic Surveys

TOPOGRAPHIC  SURVEYS in Texas The  purpose  of  a  TOPOGRAPHIC  SURVEY is  to  gather  survey  data  about  the  natural  and man-made  features  of  the  land,  as  well  as  its elevations.  From  this  information  a  three-dimensional  map  may  be  prepared.  The  topographic  map is prepared in  the  office  after collecting the field data or it may be prepared right away in  the  field  by  plane  table.  The  work  usually consists  of  the  following: 1.  Establishing  horizontal  and  vertical  control that  will  serve  as  the  framework  of  the  survey 2.   Determining   enough   horizontal   location and  elevation  (usually  called  side  shots)  of  ground points to provide enough data for plotting contours when the map is prepared 3.  Locating  natural  and  man-made  features that may be required by the purpose of the survey 4.   Computing   distances,   angles,   and elevations 5.  Drawing  the  topographic  map.
 Topographic surveys are commonly identified with  horizontal  and/or  vertical  control  of  third- and  lower-order  accuracies.
Topographic surveying Houston Texas
ROUTE SURVEYS The  term  route  survey   refers  to  surveys necessary  for  the  location  and  construction  oflines  of  transportation  or  communication  that continue  across  country  for  some  distance,  such as   highways,   railroads,   open-conduit   systems, pipelines,  and  power  lines.  Generally,  the  pre- liminary  survey  for  this  work  takes  the  form  of a topographic survey. In the final stage, the work may  consist  of  the  following: 1.  Locating  the  center  line,  usually  marked  by stakes at 100-ft intervals called stations 2.  Determining  elevations  along  and  acrossthe   center   line   for   plotting   profile   and   cross sections3. Plotting the profile and cross sections and fixing the grades 4. Computing the volumes of earthwork andpreparing a mass diagram 5. Staking out the extremities for cuts and fills 6. Determining drainage areas to be used in the  design  of  ditches  and  culverts 7. Laying out structures, such as bridges and culverts 8.  Locating  right-of-way  boundaries,  as  well as  staking  out  fence  lines,  if  necessary.
Request Land Survey Services from B and B Surveying of Houston Texas

Topographic surveying services for state of Texas

Work Product

A DTM (Digital Terrain Model) or Topographic Survey requires:

  • A control survey network, with horizontal and vertical positions on primary control points that are monumented, referenced, and placed near or on the project site.
  • Points of secondary control, which are based upon and supplement primary control to facilitate data acquisition within a project.
  • A description and location sketch of each control point.
  • Data acquisition sufficient to generate an accurate DTM for the purpose of generating contours. 
While a topographic map (2 dimensional) may be the typical end product of a topographic survey, for general purposes a processed computer file for a DTM (3 dimensional) is the primary deliverable product. Even when hard copy maps are specified as a part of the deliverable, electronic graphics files (2D and/or 3D) for the final product can be furnished for each project.


The effect of location, such as rural, suburban, urban, or urban business district, on conditions of a DTM or topographic survey will be minor and will be most dependent upon the purpose of the survey.

The need for appropriate control and tolerances will be the deciding factor when the purpose of the survey is for roadway or ROW design in determining reasonably accurate quantities of construction materials, such as water, spoil, fill, concrete, etc.

Field Procedures

DTM or topographic surveys require a reliable horizontal and vertical control system based on acceptably closed and adjusted traverses and level loops. Attention is required be given toward developing this control system before any detail work is begun.

Field work shall be performed to achieve the specified or intended accuracy and results as stated in the manual, in accordance with accepted technical methods, i.e.: TSPS Manual of Practice, and as directed by the manufacturer of the surveying instrument(s) or equipment used.

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